7.1. General information
Cars have electric equipment system with 12 V.Elektrooborudovaniye's working tension is executed according to the single-wire scheme – negative conclusions of sources and consumers of the electric power are connected to a body of the car which carries out function of the second wire. A food of all lighting devices and electric units is carried out from the battery of lead-acid type recharged from the generator of an alternating current.
The present section is devoted to the description of procedures of service and repair of some elements of system of onboard electric equipment. Besides, procedures of diagnostics of malfunctions of electric equipment of the general order are considered.
On the car the device of multipleksirovanny communication of Controller Area Network (CAN) is established. It unites separate monitors in the general scheme (the tire of data) that offers the following advantages: fast data transmission from one device to another, economy of a place at the expense of application of small payments and details, reduction of number of sensors at the expense of their multifunctionality.
Principle of work of CAN: instead of the separate conductor for each signal only two general wires that allows to receive at the same time information on a condition of the majority of devices and sensors are used, without using thus separate toggle-switches and switches.
The tire CAN, receiving important information (for example, about malfunction), fixes it in the memory.
At replacement of safety locks it is forbidden to apply screw-drivers and the metal tool as it can lead to short circuit in electric equipment chains.
It is forbidden to disconnect the switchboard of ignition and the storage battery on the working engine as it will lead to failure of a regulator of tension and elements of the electronic equipment of the car.
At check of chains of electric equipment it is forbidden to close on "mass" of a wire (to check serviceability of chains «on a spark») as it can lead to failure of elements of electric equipment.
It is forbidden even to connect quickly a conclusion «30» generators to "weight" (to check operation of the generator «on a spark») as it will lead to failure of diodes of the vypryamitelny block of the generator. To check the generator on the car it is possible only the voltmeter and the ampermeter. In order to avoid failure of diodes of the vypryamitelny block it is forbidden to check their megommetry or the control lamp fed by tension more than 12 In, and also to check such devices of a chain of electric equipment on the car without a detachment of wires from the generator. To check resistance of isolation of a winding of a stator of the generator the increased tension it is necessary on the generator which has been removed from the car, at the conclusions of a winding of a stator disconnected from the vypryamitelny block.
At carrying out electrowelding works on the car it is necessary to disconnect wires from plugs of the storage battery and the generator.
Do not concern elements of system of ignition and high-voltage wires on the working engine.
Do not lay a wire of a low and high voltage in one plait.
At additional charge of the storage battery on the car by means of the charger disconnect wires from battery plugs.
Before connection or a detachment of the negative plug from the storage battery, be convinced, whether ignition and marker lights is switched off. (Otherwise, damage of semi-conductor elements) is possible.
Preparation of the car for performance of control and diagnostic operations
The term «a car condition before the beginning of control and diagnostic operations» means that the car condition before the beginning of check should correspond to the requirements specified below.
Temperature of cooling liquid: 80-90°C.
Headlights of head light, the electric fan of system of cooling, and all other auxiliary consumers of the electric power should be switched off.
Mechanical transmission: in neutral situation.
Automatic transmission: in the mode "R".
Temperature of sprayed water: no more 82°С.
Check by the MUT-II device
Connect the MUT-II device to the diagnostic socket as it is specified in drawing.
Before connection or a MUT-II device detachment, be convinced that the ignition key will turn in the situation "LOCK" ("OFF").
In order to avoid car ignition
Incorrect installation of elements of electric or fuel system can lead to a fire. For the purpose of quality providing and safety of the car, it is necessary, that installation of any additional equipment and as the repair, connected with electric or fuel system, should were carried out according to "Repair manual".